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The Master said, He that rules by mind is like the north star,

1. The Master said, He that rules by mind is like the north star,

steady in his seat, whilst the stars all bend to him.

2. The Master said, The three hundred poems are summed up in the one

line, Think no evil.

3. The Master said, Guide the people by law, aline them by punishment;

they may shun crime, but they will want shame. Guide them by mind,

aline them by courtesy; they will learn shame
nd grow good.

4. The Master said, At fifteen, I had the will to learn; at thirty, I

could stand; at forty, I had no doubts; at fifty, I understood the

heavenly Bidding; at sixty, my ears were opened; at seventy, I

could do as my heart lusted without trespassing from the square.

5. Meng Yi asked the duty of a son.

The Master said, Not to transgress.

As Fan Chi'ih was driving him, the Master said, Meng-sun asked

me the duty of a son; I answered, Not to transgress.

What did ye mean? said Fan Chi'ih.

To serve our father and mother with courtesy whilst they live; to bury

them with courtesy when they die, and to worship them with courtesy.

6. Meng Wu asked the duty of a son.

The Master said, He should not grieve his father and mother by

anything but illness.

7. Tzu-yu asked the duty of a son.

The Master said, He that can feed his parents is now called a good

son. But both dogs and horses are fed, and unless we honour our

parents, what is the difference?

8. Tzu-hsia asked the duty of a son.

The Master said, Our manner is the hard part. For the young to be a

stay in toil and leave the wine and food to their elders, is this to

fulfil their duty?

9. The Master said, If I talk all day to Hui, like a dullard, he

never differs from me. But when he is gone, if I watch him when alone,

he can carry out what I taught. No, Hui is no dullard!

10. The Master said, See what he does; watch what moves him; search

what pleases him: can the man lie hidden? Can the man lie hidden?

11. The Master said, To keep old knowledge warm and get new makes the


12. The Master said, A gentleman is not a vessel.

13. Tzu-kung asked, What is a gentleman?

The Master said, He puts words into deeds first, and follows these up

with words.

14. The Master said, A gentleman is broad and fair; the small man

takes sides and is narrow.

15. The Master said, Learning without thought is naught; thought

without learning is dangerous.

16. The Master said, To fight strange doctrines does harm.

17. The Master said, Yu, shall I teach thee what is wisdom? To

know what we know, and know what we do not know, is wisdom.

18. Tsu-chang learned with an eye to pay.

The Master said, Hear much, leave all that is doubtful alone, speak

warily of everything else, and few will be offended. See much, leave

all that is dangerous alone, deal warily with everything else, and

thou wilt have little to rue. If thy words seldom give offence, and

thy deeds leave little to rue, pay will follow.

19. Duke Ai asked, What should I do to win the people?

Confucius answered, Lift up the straight, put away the crooked; and

the people will be won. Lift up the crooked, put away the straight;

and the people will not be won.

20. Chi K'ang asked how to make the people lowly, faithful and


The Master said, Meet them with dignity, they will be lowly; be a good

son and merciful, they will be faithful; lift up the good and teach

the unskilled, and they will take pains.

21. One said to Confucius, Why do ye not govern, Sir?

The Master said, What does the Book say of a good son? 'To be a

good son and a friend to thy brothers is to show how to govern.'

This, too, is to govern. Must one be in office to govern?

22. The Master said, A man without truth, I know not what good he is!

A cart without a crosspole, a carriage without a yoke, how can they be


23. Tzu-chang asked whether we can know what is to be ten

generations hence.

The Master said, The Yin took over the manners of the Hsia; the

harm and the good that they did them can be known. The Chou took over

the manners of the Yin; the harm and the good that they did them can

be known. And we may know what shall be, even an hundred generations

hence, whoever follows Chou.

24. The Master said, To worship the ghosts of men not akin to us is

fawning. To see the right and not do it is want of courage.