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The Master said, Savages! the men that first went into courtesy and

1. The Master said, Savages! the men that first went into courtesy and

music! Gentlemen! those that went into them later! My use is to follow

the first lead in both.

2. The Master said, Not one of my followers in Ch'en or Ts'ai comes

any more to my door! Yen Yuean, Min Tzu-ch'ien, Jan Po-niu and

Chung-kung were men of noble life; Tsai Wo and Tzu-kung were the

talkers; Jan Yu and Chi-lu were statesmen; Tzu
yu and Tzu-hsia, men of

arts and learning.

3. The Master said, I get no help from Hui. No word I say but

delights him!

4. The Master said, How good a son is Min Tzu-ch'ien! No one finds

fault with anything that his father, or his mother, or his brethren

say of him.

5. Nan Jung would thrice repeat The Sceptre White. Confucius

gave him his brother's daughter for wife.

6. Chi K'ang asked which disciples loved learning. Confucius answered,

There was Yen Hui loved learning. Alas! his mission was short, he

died. Now there is no one.

7. When Yen Yuean died, Yen Lu asked for the Master's carriage to

furnish an outer coffin.

The Master said, Brains or no brains, each of us speaks of his son.

When Li died he had an inner but not an outer coffin: I would not

go on foot to furnish an outer coffin. As I follow in the wake of the

ministers I cannot go on foot.

8. When Yen Yuean died the Master said, Woe is me! Heaven has undone

me! Heaven has undone me!

9. When Yen Yuean died the Master gave way to grief.

His followers said, Sir, ye are giving way.

The Master said, Am I giving way? If I did not give way for this man,

for whom should I give way to grief?

10. When Yen Yuean died the disciples wished to bury him in pomp.

The Master said, This must not be.

The disciples buried him in pomp.

The Master said, Hui treated me as his father. I have failed to treat

him as a son. No, not I; but ye, my two-three boys.

11. Chi-lu asked what is due to the ghosts of the dead?

The Master said, When we cannot do our duty to the living, how can we

do it to the dead?

He dared to ask about death.

We know not life, said the Master, how can we know death?

12. Seeing the disciple Min standing at his side with winning looks,

Tzu-lu with warlike front, Jan Yu and Tzu-kung frank and free, the

Master's heart was glad.

A man like Yu, he said, dies before his day.

13. The men of Lu were building the Long Treasury.

Min Tzu-ch'ien said, Would not the old one do? Why must it be rebuilt?

The Master said, That man does not talk, but when he speaks he hits

the mark.

14. The Master said, What has the lute of Yu to do, twanging at my


But when the disciples looked down on Tzu-lu, the Master said, Yu has

come up into hall, but he has not yet entered the inner rooms.

15. Tzu-kung asked, Which is the better, Shih or Shang?

The Master said, Shih goes too far, Shang not far enough.

Then is Shih the better? said Tzu-kung.

Too far, said the Master, is no nearer than not far enough.

16. The Chi was richer than the Duke of Chou; yet Ch'iu became his

tax-gatherer and made him still richer.

He is no disciple of mine, said the Master. My little children, ye may

beat your drums and make war on him.

17. Ch'ai is simple, Shen is dull, Shih is smooth,

Yu is coarse.

18. The Master said, Hui is almost faultless, and he is often

empty. Tz'u will not bow to the Bidding, and he heaps up riches;

but his views are often sound.

19. Tzu-chang asked, What is the way of a good man?

The Master said, He does not tread the beaten track; and yet he does

not enter the inner rooms.

20. The Master said, Commend a man for plain speaking: he may prove a

gentleman, or else but seeming honest.

21. Tzu-lu said, Shall I do all I am taught?

The Master said, Whilst thy father and elder brothers live, how canst

thou do all thou art taught?

Jan Yu asked, Shall I do all I am taught?

The Master said, Do all thou art taught.

Kung-hsi Hua said, Yu asked, Shall I do all I am taught? and ye

said, Sir, Whilst thy father and elder brothers live. Ch'iu

asked, Shall I do all I am taught? and ye said, Sir, Do all thou art

taught. I am in doubt, and dare to ask you, Sir.

The Master said, Ch'iu is bashful, so I egged him on; Yu is twice a

man, so I held him back.

22. When the Master was in fear in K'uang, Yen Yuean fell behind.

The Master said, I held thee for dead.

He answered, Whilst my Master lives how should I dare to die?

23. Chi Tzu-jan asked whether Chung Yu or Jan Ch'iu could

be called a great minister.

The Master said, I thought ye would ask me a riddle, Sir, and ye ask

about Yu and Ch'iu. He that holds to the Way in serving his

lord and leaves when he cannot do so, we call a great minister. Now Yu

and Ch'iu I should call tools.

Who are just followers then?

Nor would they follow, said the Master, if told to kill their lord or


24. Tzu-lu made Tzu-kao governor of Pi.

The Master said, Thou art undoing a man's son.

Tzu-lu said, What with the people and the spirits of earth and corn,

must a man read books to become learned?

The Master said, This is why I hate a glib tongue.

25. The Master said to Tzu-lu, Tseng Hsi, Jan Yu and Kung-hsi Hua

as they sat beside him, I may be a day older than you, but forget

that. Ye are wont to say, I am unknown. Well, if ye were known, what

would ye do?

Tzu-lu answered lightly. Give me a land of a thousand chariots,

crushed between great neighbours, overrun by soldiers and searched by

famine, and within three years I could put courage into it and high


The Master smiled.

What wouldst thou do, Ch'iu? he said.

He answered, Give me a land of sixty or seventy, or fifty or sixty

square miles, and within three years I could give the people plenty.

As for courtesy and music, they would wait the coming of a gentleman.

And what wouldst thou do, Ch'ih?

He answered, I do not speak of what I can do, but of what I should

like to learn. At services in the Ancestral Temple, or at the Grand

Audience, I should like to fill a small part.

And what wouldst thou do, Tien?

Tien stopped playing, pushed his still sounding lute aside, rose and

answered, My choice would be unlike those of the other three.

What harm in that? said the Master. Each but spake his mind.

In the last days of spring, all clad for the springtime, with five or

six young men and six or seven lads, I would bathe in the Yi, be

fanned by the wind in the Rain God's glade, and go back home singing.

The Master said with a sigh, I side with Tien.

Tseng Hsi stayed after the other three had left, and said, What did ye

think, Sir, of what the three disciples said?

Each but spake his mind, said the Master.

Why did ye smile at Yu, Sir?

Lands are swayed by courtesy, but what he said was not modest. That

was why I smiled. Yet did not Ch'iu speak of a state? Where would

sixty or seventy, or fifty or sixty, square miles be found that are

not a state? And did not Ch'ih too speak of a state? Who but great

vassals are there in the Ancestral Temple, or at the Grand Audience?

But if Ch'ih were to take a small part, who could fill a big one?