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The Master said, To learn and then do, is not that a pleasure When

1. The Master said, To learn and then do, is not that a pleasure? When

friends come from afar do we not rejoice? To live unknown and not

fret, is not that to be a gentleman?

2. Yu-tzu said. Few men that are good sons and good brothers are

fond of withstanding those over them. A man that is not fond of

withstanding those over him and is yet fond of broils is nowhere

found. A gentleman heeds the roots. When
the root has taken, the Way

is born. And to be a good son and a good brother, is not that the root

of love?

3. The Master said, Smooth words and fawning looks are seldom found

with love.

4. Tseng-tzu said, Thrice daily I ask myself: In dealing for

others, have I been unfaithful? Have I been untrue to friends? Do I

practise what I preach?

5. The Master said, To guide a land of a thousand chariots, honour

business and be true; spend little and love men; time thy calls on the


6. The Master said, The young should be dutiful at home, modest

abroad, careful and true, overflowing in kindness for all, but in

brotherhood with love. And if they have strength to spare they should

spend it on the arts.

7. Tzu-hsia said, If a man eschews beauty and honours worth, if he

serves his father and mother with all his strength, if he is ready to

give his life for his lord, and keeps faith with his friends, though

others may say he has no learning, I must call him learned.

8. The Master said, A gentleman will not be looked up to unless he is

staid, nor will his learning be sound. Put faithfulness and truth

first; have no friends unlike thyself; be not ashamed to mend thy


9. Tseng-tzu said, Heed the dead, follow up the past, and the soul

of the people will again grow great.

10. Tzu-ch'in said to Tzu-kung, When he comes to a country the

Master always hears how it is governed; does he ask, or is it told


Tzu-kung said, The Master gets it by his warmth and honesty, by

politeness, modesty and yielding. The way the Master asks is unlike

other men's asking.

11. The Master said, Whilst thy father lives look for his purpose;

when he is gone, look how he walked. To change nothing in thy father's

ways for three years may be called pious.

12, Yu-tzu said, To behave with ease is the best part of courtesy.

This was the beauty of the old kings' ways; this they followed in

small and great. But knowing this, it will not do to give way to ease,

unchecked by courtesy. This too is wrong.

13. Yu-tzu said, If pledges are close to right, word can be kept. If

attentions are close to courtesy, shame will be kept far. If we do not

choose our leaders wrong, we may worship them too.

14. The Master said, A gentleman that does not seek to eat his fill,

nor look for ease in his home, who is earnest at work and careful of

speech, who walks with those that keep the Way, and is guided by them,

may be said to love learning.

15. Tzu-kung said, Poor, but no flatterer; rich, but not proud: how

would that be?

It would do, said the Master; but better still were poor but merry;

rich, but loving courtesy.

Tzu-kung said, When the poem says:

If ye cut, if ye file,

If ye polish and grind,

is that what is meant?

The Master said, Now I can begin to talk of poetry to Tz'u. Tell him

what is gone, and he knows what shall come.

16. The Master said, Not to be known is no sorrow. My sorrow is not

knowing men.